NNI and Harvard Project Research

Determinants Of Development Success In The Native Nations Of The United States: English Version

Year

The poverty of indigenous North Americans, especially those living on reservations, has beenconcerned Indian and federal policymakers for more than a century. After the treatymaking phase and the establishment of the reservation system, federal policies to address Native poverty vacillated between cultural assimilation, forced urbanization, and asset privatization, on the one hand, and governmental reorganization, natural resource exploitation, and welfare assistance, on the other. None of this experimentation brought American Indians to parity with the rest of the United States. American Indians and Alaska Natives have been the poorest category of Americans for decades.

Recently, however, many resurgent Native nations have created economic growth and accompanying political and social development in their homelands. For the first time, the incomes of Indians on reservations rose faster than the American average without an accompanying rise in federal spending. In the 1970s and 1980s, Indian incomes rose and fell as federal program budgets for Indian Country increased and then decreased. By contrast in the 1990s, federal spending on Indian programs did not change much, but Indian incomes rose, both on reservations with casinos and without. The pace of average income growth on the reservations exceeded the US growth in per capita income by a factor of three.

What explains this welcome improvement? Research begun in the 1980s and continuing to the present examines the variation in outcomes across tribes and uncovers the strategies Native nations have used for success. Whereas many Native and federal...

Protecting the Fish and Eating Them, Too: Impacts of the Endangered Species Act on Tribal Water Use

Author
Year

The scarcity of water in the American West and the increased demands for the resource have created much tension of late between tribes, endangered species advocates, and the holders of water rights granted by the states for non-native consumptive uses. The over-allocation of water by state governments is increasingly at odds with both habitat preservation of endangered aquatic species and tribes' exercising their water rights for consumptive uses.

As tribes actively quantify their water rights and pursue development projects that enable them to use the water, they are faced with a seemingly insurmountable problem: how can tribes promote future economic development and at the same time ensure the protection of species under the Endangered Species Act in the face of federal consumptive-water-use restrictions?

Native Nations
Resource Type
Citation

Lester, Lauren. "Protecting the Fish and Eating Them, Too: Impacts of the Endangered Species Act on Tribal Water Use." Udall Center Publications. Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, The University of Arizona. Tucson, Arizona. 2006. Book.

The Nature and Components of Economic Development in Indian Country

Year

Defines what economic development means and how it applies in Indian Country; looks at the changing patterns of Indian Country economic development; debunks some of the myths and misconceptions about economic development in Native nations; suggests policy options for both Indigenous nations and the federal government; and calls for better ways to measure socioeconomic change in Indigenous communities.

Resource Type
Citation

Cornell, Stephen, Miriam Jorgensen. "The Nature and Components of Economic Development in Indian Country." National Congress of American Indians Policy Research Center. National Native American Economic Summit. Phoenix, Arizona. May 15, 2007. Report.

Strengthening and Rebuilding Tribal Justice Systems

Year

Assesses the U.S Department of Justice's Comprehensive Indian Resources for Community and Law Enforcement (CIRCLE) Project, which aimed to help participating tribes implement strategies for making the individual components of their justice systems work better in addressing crime and related social problems.

Resource Type
Citation

Wakeling, Stewart, Miriam Jorgensen. "Strengthening and Rebuilding Tribal Justice Systems: A Participatory Outcomes Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Justice Comprehensive Indian Resources for Community and Law Enforcement (CIRCLE) Project." CIRCLE Project Outcome Evaluations. Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy at the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, The University of Arizona. Tucson, Arizona. September 2007. Final Report.

The Financial Literacy of Native American Youth

Author
Year

Tests of high school students conducted by the Jump$tart Coalition for Personal Financial Literacy indicate that Native American youth are less prepared to make informed financial choices than most of their peers. Jump$tart and the members of the Native Financial Education Coalition (NFEC) are working to close the gap between Native youth and their peers by advocating for improved financial education opportunities in Native communities. 

Resource Type
Citation

Jorgensen, Miriam, Lewis Mandell. "The Financial Literacy of Native American Youth." The Native Financial Education Coalition, Jump$tart Coalition for Personal Financial Literacy, and Merrill Lynch. First Nations Oweesta Corporation. Rapid City, South Dakota. April 2007. Report.

Rights, Governance, and the BC Treaty Process

Producer
BC Treaty Commission
Year

The keynote address given at the BC Treaty Commission Conference for First Nations that discusses the rights, governance and the BC treaty process. Cornell emphasizes the fact that treating making can be more than a process. It can lead to the phenomenal concept of nation building that is sweeping Native nations across the world.

Native Nations
Resource Type
Topics
Citation

Cornell, Stephen. "Forging Linkages & Finding Solutions." A BC Treaty Commission Conference for First Nations. BC Treaty Commission. Vancouver, British Columbia. October 29-31, 2008. Presentation.

Determinants of Development Success in the Native Nations of the United States (English)

Year

The poverty of indigenous North Americans, especially those living on reservations, has concerned Indian and federal policymakers for more than a century. After the treaty making phase and the establishment of the reservation system, federal policies to address Native poverty vacillated between cultural assimilation, forced urbanization, and asset privatization, on the one hand, and governmental reorganization, natural resource exploitation, and welfare assistance, on the other.

Recently, however, many resurgent Native nations have created economic growth and accompanying political and social development in their homelands. Despite the difficult road ahead, Native nations in the United States have found successful approaches, and their fortunes have never looked better. 

Resource Type
Citation

Taylor, Jonathan B. "Determinants of Development Success in the Native Nations of the United States." The Harvard Project for American Indian Economic Development, Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy, The University of Arizona. Tucson, Arizona. 2008. Introduction.

Leadership Development in the Native Arts and Culture Sector

Year

Burgeoning cultural renewal in Native America and growing mainstream recognition of Native artists and their ideas have resulted in substantial growth in the Native arts and culture sector. The leaders of Native arts and cultural organizations have been a significant force behind this change. They promote Native artists, encourage connections among them, nurture the cultural links that underlie artists’ creativity and commitments, stimulate field development, help manage market growth and open pathways to new opportunities.

In Native communities, they (and the artists they support) have yet another role: As culture bearers, they generate space for collective self-definition and tribal self-determination.

Resource Type
Citation

Jorgensen, Miriam, Rachel Starks. "Leadership Development in the Native Arts and Culture Sector." Ford Foundation. Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy, Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, The University of Arizona. Tucson, Arizona. 2008. Report.

Borrowing Trouble: Predatory Lending in Native American Communities

Year

With the collapse of the subprime mortgage lending market, predatory lending has become a significant national concern. In Native communities, however, predatory lending has been a major concern for years, since abusive lending practices have tended to proliferate more in minority and low-income communities than elsewhere.

This paper provides an analysis of survey data collected from attendees at the National American Indian Housing Council meeting in May 2007; survey data collected from Native users of selected Voluntary Income Tax Assistance sites; geo-coded data of payday lenders, bank branches, and Native community development finance institutions; and a national data set of home mortgage loans. This paper also presents five case studies of promising practices and concludes by offering concrete suggestions about the steps Native nations can take to curb the impact of predatory lending on their citizens.

Resource Type
Citation

Jorgensen, Miriam, Sarah Dewees, Karen Edwards. "Borrowing Trouble: Predatory Lending in Native American Communities." First Nations Development Institute. Longmont, Colorado. April 2008. Paper.

Making First Nation Law: The Listuguj Mi'gmaq Fishery

Year

This is a case study that explores Listuguj Mi'gmaq law, an assertion and manifestation of the nation's right to fish and to govern its people, lands, and waters in its own ways. It discusses the genesis, application, and effects of the law and how a First Nation not only reclaimed their inherent jurisdiction over their resource, but reclaimed governance as an inherent, Indigenous right, tradition and practice. 

Native Nations
Resource Type
Citation

Cornell, Stephen, Miriam Jorgensen, Renee Goldtooth, Rachel Starks, Sheldon Tetreault, Michele Guerin, Beaver Paul, Anisa White. "Making First Nation Law: The Listuguj Mi’gmaq Fishery." National Centre for First Nations Governance and Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy, The University of Arizona. Tucson, Arizona. August 2010. Case Study.