Articles and Chapters

IDSov and the silent data revolution: Indigenous Peoples and the decentralized building blocks of web3

Year

This article explores the technology underpinning the decentralized data revolution and encourages Indigenous Peoples (IPs) to secure their Indigenous Data Sovereignty (IDSov) over the Metaverse and Web3. More specifically, this article will survey blockchain technologies, exploring some disturbing colonial uses and providing an international legal framework that IPs can use to advance their IDSov internationally and domestically. This article will consider the role that cryptocurrencies, smart contracts, decentralized oracles, non-fungible tokens (NFTs), decentralized finance (DeFi), and decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) might play in advancing IDSov as it relates to western conceptualizations of Web3 and the Metaverse. The worldwide web's global data structure is undergoing a seismic shift that will significantly impact IPs. As inherent sovereigns, IPs are uniquely positioned to use and regulate these technologies in manners consistent with their cultural values and international indigenous human rights instruments. However, the march toward Web3 also looms menacingly over IPs. As such, we intend to examine IPs' novel risks and opportunities with Web3 and the Metaverse. We conclude by encouraging IPs to become fluent in the minutia of these technologies and to exert their inherent sovereignty over these nascent technologies in international and domestic arenas by building culturally informed systems to address their particularized needs. Future research should look toward the specific hurdles, and successes IPs are experiencing as they apply the technologies and principles discussed here.

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Citation

Fernandez, Adam and Dillon Dobson. (May 19, 2023). IDSov and the silent data revolution: Indigenous Peoples and the decentralized building blocks of web3. Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics. Sec. Scholarly Communication. Volume 8 - 2023. https://doi.org/10.3389/frma.2023.1160566

Global impacts of extractive and industrial development projects on Indigenous Peoples’ lifeways, lands, and rights

Year

To what extent do extractive and industrial development pressures affect Indigenous Peoples’ lifeways, lands, and rights globally? We analyze 3081 environmental conflicts over development projects to quantify Indigenous Peoples’ exposure to 11 reported social-environmental impacts jeopardizing the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Indigenous Peoples are affected in at least 34% of all documented environmental conflicts worldwide. More than three-fourths of these conflicts are caused by mining, fossil fuels, dam projects, and the agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and livestock (AFFL) sector. Landscape loss (56% of cases), livelihood loss (52%), and land dispossession (50%) are reported to occur globally most often and are significantly more frequent in the AFFL sector. The resulting burdens jeopardize Indigenous rights and impede the realization of global environmental justice.

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Citation

Arnim Scheidel et al. (June 7, 2023)Global impacts of extractive and industrial development projects on Indigenous Peoples’ lifeways, lands, and rights. Science Advances. Vol 9, Issue 23. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.ade9557.

Extending the CARE Principles from tribal research policies to benefit sharing in genomic research

Year

Indigenous Peoples have historically been targets of extractive research that has led to little to no benefit. In genomics, such research not only exposes communities to harms and risks of misuse, but also deprives such communities of potential benefits. Tribes in the US have been exercising their sovereignty to limit this extractive practice by adopting laws and policies to govern research on their territories and with their citizens. Federally and state recognized tribes are in the strongest position to assert research oversight.

Other tribes lack the same authority, given that federal and state governments do not recognize their rights to regulate research, resulting in varying levels of oversight by tribes. These governance measures establish collective protections absent from the US federal government’s research oversight infrastructure, while setting expectations regarding benefits to tribes as political collectives.

Using a legal epidemiology approach, the paper discusses findings from a review of Tribal research legislation, policy, and administrative materials from 26 tribes in the US. The discussion specifies issues viewed by tribes as facilitators and barriers to securing benefits from research for their nations and members/citizens, and describes preemptive and mitigating strategies pursued by tribes in response.

These strategies are set within the framing of the CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance (Collective Benefit, Authority to Control, Responsibility, Ethics), a set of standards developed to ensure that decisions made about data pertaining to Indigenous communities at the individual and tribal levels are responsive to their values and collective interests. Our findings illustrate gaps to address for benefit sharing and a need to strengthen Responsibility and Ethics in tribal research governance.

Native Nations
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Topics
Citation

Carroll SR, Plevel R, Jennings LL, Garba I, Sterling R, Cordova-Marks FM, Hiratsuka V, Hudson M and Garrison NA (2022), Extending the CARE Principles from tribal research policies to benefit sharing in genomic research. Front. Genet. 13:1052620. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2022.1052620

Archaeology and Social Justice in Native America

Year

Over the past 20 years, collaboration has become an essential aspect of archaeological practice in North America. In paying increased attention to the voices of descendant and local communities, archaeologists have become aware of the persistent injustices these often marginalized groups face. Building on growing calls for a responsive and engaged cultural heritage praxis, this forum article brings together a group of Native and non-Native scholars working at the nexus of history, ethnography, archaeology, and law in order to grapple with the role of archaeology in advancing social justice. Contributors to this article touch on a diverse range of critical issues facing Indigenous communities in the United States, including heritage law, decolonization, foodways, community-based participatory research, and pedagogy. Uniting these commentaries is a shared emphasis on research practices that promote Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination. In drawing these case studies together, we articulate a sovereignty-based model of social justice that facilitates Indigenous control over cultural heritage in ways that address their contemporary needs and goals.

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Citation

Laluk, N., Montgomery, L., Tsosie, R., McCleave, C., Miron, R., Carroll, S., . . . Schneider, T. (2022). Archaeology and Social Justice in Native America. American Antiquity, 1-24. doi:10.1017/aaq.2022.59

Using Indigenous Standards to Implement the CARE Principles: Setting Expectations through Tribal Research Codes

Year

Biomedical data are now organized in large-scale databases allowing researchers worldwide to access and utilize the data for new projects. As new technologies generate even larger amounts of data, data governance and data management are becoming pressing challenges. The FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable) were developed to facilitate data sharing. However, the Indigenous Data Sovereignty movement advocates for greater Indigenous control and oversight in order to share data on Indigenous Peoples’ terms. This is especially true in the context of genetic research where Indigenous Peoples historically have been unethically exploited in the name of science. This article outlines the relationship between sovereignty and ethics in the context of data to describe the collective rights that Indigenous Peoples assert to increase control over their biomedical data. Then drawing on the CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance (Collective benefit, Authority to control, Responsibility, and Ethics), we explore how standards already set by Native nations in the United States, such as tribal research codes, provide direction for implementation of the CARE Principles to complement FAIR. A broader approach to policy and procedure regarding tribal participation in biomedical research is required and we make recommendations for tribes, institutions, and ethical practice.

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Citation

Carroll Stephanie Russo, Garba Ibrahim, Plevel Rebecca, Small-Rodriguez Desi, Hiratsuka Vanessa Y., Hudson Maui, Garrison Nanibaa’ A. Using Indigenous Standards to Implement the CARE Principles: Setting Expectations through Tribal Research Codes. Frontiers in Genetics. Vol. 13. 2022. DOI=10.3389/fgene.2022.823309. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fgene.2022.823309

ANCSA: A complete or incomplete story of sovereignty

Year

Shortly after the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act passed into law in 1971, headlines started appearing in local newspapers that hinted at a growing confusion among Alaska Native communities: “Indian Country hard to define,” stated one Tundra Times edition. “ANCSA and tribalism?” asked another.

The articles were referring to the new, unusual Indigenous legal landscape that ANCSA had established, and the ambiguity surrounding tribes’ jurisdiction going forward.

“Exactly what authority might tribes exercise? ” asked one Tundra Times op-ed. Many were confused about how this legislation would affect tribal sovereignty in Alaska.

Fifty years later, there are still parts of this question that remain unanswered.

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Citation

Sullivan, Meghan. ANCSA: A complete or incomplete story of sovereignty. January 22, 2022. Indian Country Today. Retrieved from: https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/ancsa-a-complete-or-incomplete-story-of-sovereignty

Balancing openness with Indigenous data sovereignty: An opportunity to leave no one behind in the journey to sequence all of life

Year

The field of genomics has benefited greatly from its “openness” approach to data sharing. However, with the increasing volume of sequence information being created and stored and the growing number of international genomics efforts, the equity of openness is under question. The United Nations Convention of Biodiversity aims to develop and adopt a standard policy on access and benefit-sharing for sequence information across signatory parties. This standardization will have profound implications on genomics research, requiring a new definition of open data sharing. The redefinition of openness is not unwarranted, as its limitations have unintentionally introduced barriers of engagement to some, including Indigenous Peoples. This commentary provides an insight into the key challenges of openness faced by the researchers who aspire to protect and conserve global biodiversity, including Indigenous flora and fauna, and presents immediate, practical solutions that, if implemented, will equip the genomics community with both the diversity and inclusivity required to respectfully protect global biodiversity.

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Citation
Ann M. Mc Cartney, Jane Anderson, Libby Liggins, Maui L. Hudson, Matthew Z. Anderson, Ben TeAika, Janis Geary, Robert Cook-Deegan, Hardip R. Patel, Adam M. Phillippy. Balancing openness with Indigenous data sovereignty: An opportunity to leave no one behind in the journey to sequence all of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Jan 2022, 119 (4) e2115860119; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115860119

Investing in Rural Prosperity Chapter 7: Native America x Rural America: Tribal Nations as Key Players in Regional Rural Economies

Year

The seventh chapter in Investing in Rural Prosperity, "Native America x Rural America: Tribal Nations as Key Players in Regional Rural Economies", outlines the diversity of Native nations, including with respect to governmental structure and economic opportunity. It also explores the history and evolution of Native economies, the effect that European colonization and U.S. government policy have had on economic opportunity in Indian Country, and efforts by Native people to improve Native economic prosperity. The authors highlight ongoing challenges to improving Native economies, including the still small on-reservation private and nonprofit sectors, and the need for continued improvements in creating business friendly legal infrastructure and access to capital. The chapter concludes by showcasing instances in which cooperation between Native nations and nearby non-Native communities have led to improved quality of life for both and proposes that increased regional collaboration could result in substantial mutual gains for both tribal and rural communities.

Investing in Rural Prosperity, published by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in collaboration with the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, seeks to help rural individuals and communities achieve shared economic prosperity. By outlining a framework for how to approach rural development successfully and showcasing stories of progress in different communities—as well as highlighting recommendations for action by policymakers, practitioners, funders and researchers—the editors and authors hope to advance this important goal.

The book includes contributions from 79 authors in the United States and abroad, representing financial institutions, nonprofits, philanthropies, academia and government agencies. The chapters touch on a wide range of topics, including entrepreneurship support, workforce development, energy efficient manufactured housing, and digital inclusion. The book delves into the challenges of our past and the promise of our future. Ultimately, Investing in Rural Prosperity is a call to action, so we can realize that promise—together.

The views expressed in the book do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Reserve System.

Native Nations
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Citation

Jorgensen, Miriam, and Joan Timeche. “Investing in Rural Prosperity Chapter 7: Native America x Rural America: Tribal Nations as Key Players in Regional Rural Economies” Saint Louis Fed Eagle, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 23 Nov. 2021, https://www.stlouisfed.org/community-development/publications/invest-in-rural

 

 

Expanded Ethical Principles for Research Partnership and Transdisciplinary Natural Resource Management Science

Year

Natural resource researchers have long recognized the value of working closely with the managers and communities who depend on, steward, and impact ecosystems. These partnerships take various forms, including co-production and transdisciplinary research approaches, which integrate multiple knowledges in the design and implementation of research objectives, questions, methods, and desired outputs or outcomes.

These collaborations raise important methodological and ethical challenges, because partnering with non-scientists can have real-world risks for people and ecosystems. The social sciences and biomedical research studies offer a suite of conceptual tools that enhance the quality, ethical outcomes, and effectiveness of research partnerships. For example, the ethical guidelines and regulations for human subjects research, following the Belmont Principles, help prevent harm and promote respectful treatment of research participants.

However, science–management partnerships require an expanded set of ethical concepts to better capture the challenges of working with individuals, communities, organizations, and their associated ecosystems, as partners, rather than research subjects. We draw from our experiences in collaborative teams, and build upon the existing work of natural resources, environmental health, conservation and ecology, social science, and humanities scholars, to develop an expanded framework for ethical research partnership.

This includes four principles: (1) appropriate representation, (2) self-determination, (3) reciprocity, and (4) deference, and two cross-cutting themes: (1) applications to humans and non-human actors, and (2) acquiring appropriate research skills. This framework is meant to stimulate important conversations about expanding ethics training and skills for researchers in all career-stages to improve partnerships and transdisciplinary natural resources research.

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Citation

Wilmer, H., Meadow, A. M., Brymer, A. B., Carroll, S. R., Ferguson, D. B., Garba, I., Greene, C., Owen, G., & Peck, D. E. (2021). Expanded Ethical Principles for Research Partnership and Transdisciplinary Natural Resource Management Science. Environmental Management. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-021-01508-4

COVID-19 and Indigenous Peoples: Tools to Promote Equity and Best Practices

Year

This is the second volume of a two-volume special issue of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal, volume 44.3, dedicated to the indirect impact of COVID-19 on Indigenous Peoples. The first volume (44.2) covers the degree to which Indigenous Peoples were affected by COVID-19 and how this has resulted in a number of responses at the community and local levels. In particular, three articles conducted different surveys in order to assess the levels of stress, coping, and resil-ience among Indigenous Peoples in the United States and relative to non-Indigenous peoples. The observed higher levels of stress are consistent with expectations given existing disparities in health access and care for these US populations. The first volume also provides some insight into the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand and Canada. While these Indigenous Peoples have not, at least up to this point, experienced as many cases or deaths due to COVID-19 as Indigenous Peoples in the United States, the papers from those countries highlight the ongoing need for prevention and awareness for especially vulnerable populations, as well as inclusion in national planning efforts.

The articles in this issue provide specific research and insights for improving the reporting, identifying, and prevention of COVID-19 cases and deaths. The first two articles focus on the concept of identification in national, regional and local health data. For small populations, and, in particular, Indigenous Peoples, it is imperative that data collection provide detailed information on race and tribal nation identifiers. These measures, difficult to implement, are vital for identifying the spread and transmission of contagious diseases in small communities. In the absence of this information, these populations quickly may be inundated by cases without much warning.

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Citation

Carroll, Stephanie; Randall Akee, Chandra Ford, eds. Tools to Promote Equity and Best Practices. (2020). American Indian Culture and Research Journal. Vol. 44, No. 3. American Indian Studies Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.