The Ways: Living Language: Menominee Language Revitalization

Finn Ryan

Before European contact, the Menominee Indian Tribe had a land base of over 10 million acres (in what is now known as Wisconsin and parts of Michigan) and over 2,000 people spoke their language. Today, their land has been reduced to 235,000 acres, due to a series of treaties that eroded the tribe’s land base, while policies like relocation and removal, and boarding schools where children were punished for speaking their native languages, caused the language to almost disappear. Today there are fewer than ten first language speakers and fewer than 20 fluent speakers of Menominee...

Native Nations

Ryan, Finn. "Living the Language: Menominee Language Revitalization." The Ways: Great Lakes Native Culture & Language. Wisconsin Media Lab. Madison, Wisconsin. 2013. (, accessed February 13, 2024)